Wellcome Gonzalo Antonio Moreno Jiménez. Physics papers. The secret of Universe is inside the electron.
1. A STUDY OF ENERGY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS. SPACE TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF ENERGY. “   Time   is   considered   like   a   flow,   as   a   growing   magnitude   that   advances   inexorably   carrying   every   possible   event,   disappearing   its   trace   and   assuring   its continuity   through   the   predictable   future.   But   past   and   future   are   not   more   than   unreal   forms,   so   are   they   undisputed   proofs   of   the   time   existence?   Can   be past and future like energetic instant states inside a characteristic process of energetic variation that we observe as time passage ? ”. The   development   of   the   initial   equations   shows   the   magnitude   “space”   like   a   mathematical   way   that   possesses   all   the   necessary   characteristics   for   the development   and   formation   of   any   observable   real   process.   The   emptiness,   defined   mathematically   through   the   magnitude   space   characterized   by   the equation   s=(Gεμ)∙m ”,   allows   itself   the   existence   of   processes   with   energetic   transmission   as   the   electromagnetic   radiation,   the   formation   of   matter   defined by   some   properties   as   mass   and   electrical   charge   across   the   spatial   curvature,   and   assures   the   constancy   of   light   velocity   with   independence   from   the velocity of the reference system. The   evolution   of   the   initial   hypotheses   bears   to   the   known   consequences   in   development   of   the   special   relativity   theory   and   relates   general   relativity   with the   elemental   particles   across   the   spatial   curvature   and   its   relation   with   a   constant   force   value   F=c 4 /G    and   Planck   space,   time,   mass   and   energy   values,   all implied   in   the   inertial   feature   so   called   mass   and   also   in   the   electrical   charge   property.   The   relation   E/m = c 2    is   associated   to   volume   through   the   above mentioned   constant   force   and   tension,   and   the   values   already   defined   by   Planck   appear   interpreted   as   a   "coupling"   between   " s=x "   and   Compton's   wave length “ λ ” according to the deduced equation  λx=Gh/c 3 . “…The   photon   would   remain   trapped   by   the   central   punctual   mass,   only   to   distance   whose   value   will   be   the   associated   space   to   mass:   r=x=mG/c 2 ,    which is  independent of the according to Compton formula photon mass.” “…we   might   consider   their   spatial   magnitudes   by   equivalence   and   so   a   spatial   curvature   with   these   characteristics   would   behave   like   a   photon   trapped to   distance   “r=x”   from   the   center   of   a   sphere   with   that   radio,   in   which   every   points   which   conform   it   to   the   same   distance   show   a   tension   T`=c 4 /G.   And mass attribute appears naturally.” “…mass appears from the coupling mass value (coincident with Planck mass) modulated by the interaction between two forces.” “… proper   time   appears   as   a   function   of   temperature   and   entropy   variation ,   and   second   one,   in   natural   processes   transmitted   at   light   velocity,   proper time does not exist.   “…But   we   need   to   employ   time   to   predict   natural   processes   we   observe,   considering   it   consequently   an   undisputed   probe   about   the   existence   of   time.   In this   way   we   frame   a   useful   entelechy   that   only   exits   from   the   related   to   the   observer   system   point   of   view   to   study   other   inertial   or   non   inertial   external systems, where time does not exist or it is only an equivalence with energy exchange.” Even   on   inertial   physical   systems   with   non   entropy   variations   and   constant   velocity,   equivalent   to   resting   systems,   or   on   non   inertial   systems   where acceleration   exists,   with   equivalences   on   gravity   or   weightlessness   depending   on   direction   of   the   acceleration,   time   does   not   exist,   although   an   external observer   can   to   use   the   concept   of   time   to   define   that   frames.   And   in   turn,   one   observer   placed   on   a   system   for   which   proper   time   does   not   exist,   could   use time to define each other observed external system . It   is   only   on   frames   where   an   entropy   variation   occurs,   where   we   can   devise   the   proper   time   concept,   but   considering   distinct   signs   depending   on   signs   of the entropic variation.” “…Life   is   a   feedback   reaction   that   permits   to   bear   its   increasing   of   entropy   which   tends   to   destroy   the   transmission   of   information   over   time,   first   by   using energy   to   control   that   entropy   variation,   and   as   a   certain   degradation   limit,   by   using   energy   to   be   opportunely   renewed   into   another   related   system achieving the survival of the information. Information fights unconsciously to be transmitted and not be destroyed by probability.   - INDEX - 1.- VALIDITY OF DIFFERENTIALS EQUATIONS FOR ENERGY AND MASS FUNCTIONS. In the study of the hypotheses two integration constants appear: Cm y Ce, and the equations are studied with the inclusion of constant and its consequences. 2.- HIGH MASSES CONSIDERATION. Development of the theory with the consideration of zero values for integration constants, or situations in which this approximation is useful. 3.- GENERALIZATION OF FORCE IN ITS RELATION WITH ENERGY, MASS AND ASSOCIATED ESPACE “x”. Generalization of the force involved in the relation energy, mass, space for any speed value. 4.- STUDY OF THE VELOCITY-TIME FUNCTION. 5.- TERMODINAMIC STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATED TO ENERGY-MASS PROPER TIME. Application of the hypotheses. Implications time, energy variation and entropy variation. 5.1.-Generalization in complex systems. Study of the physical meaning of the implications in a macroscopic level. 6.-COUPLING. Particular conditions of surroundings. 7.- STUDY OF ENERGETIC VALUE AND IMPULSE IMPLICATED IN “m,x” RELATION REFERING TO COUPLING. Application of the F=c4/G value in the previous conditions of surroundings. Value of the unification of forces and energy. 8.-PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE ASSOCIATED SPACE. Study of the physical meaning of the space implied in the inertial character of mass from the study of the following concepts: 8.1.- Study of the pressure in a isotropic medium defined by its equivalence space-mass. 8.2.-Tension of a string with linear density µ=m/L, on which a wave with speed c is transmitted. 8.3.- Equivalence work-energy-mass. 8.4.- Application to an inertial system with spherical curvature. 9.-PHYSICAL MEANING OF CHARGE AND MASS MAGNITUDES. Magnitudes charge and mass appear from their coupling values (coincident with Planck mass and an unified charge) modulated by the interaction between two forces. 9.1.- THEORETICAL SUPPORT. 9.2.- QUANTIZATION OF MAGNITUDES. Paper1 page (PDF)
2. QUANTUM STABILITY OF THE MUON, TAU, ELECTRON LEPTONS IN RELATION TO PLANCK MAGNITUDES AND VACUUM. QUANTIZATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE AND MASS. From the study of the spatial magnitude capacity as a sufficient medium in its relation with the Planck magnitudes in the formation and development of observable and real processes such as electrical charge and rest mass, the close existing relationships among tau, muon and electron leptonic particles are detailed as well as the definition for tau and muon as symmetrical components of an orderly mathematical framework defined by spatial relationships, which only permits the formation of some structures by an only and reproducible way. The values obtained from the developed theoretical equations for muon and tau leptons rest mass equivalent are: m(µ)·c2=105,65763 62(83) Mev ; m(τ)·c2=1778,578 255(140) Mev. Taking the reference of experimental muon rest mass value due to accuracy in mass measurement, the relative error is er(µ)=0,0000068. - INDEX - 1.– Quantization of electrical charge. 1.1.– Quantization of electrical charge. Supplementary conditions. 2.– Theoretical support and relation with electron mass. 3.– Tau-muon relationships. Rest mass values calculation and conclusions. Paper2 page (PDF)
The number of samples obtained for Ho values experimentally measured between year 1996 and the last update of the source [1], are represented on the axis of ordinates. Experimental values of the Hubble constant, in spite of experimental errors, agglutinate around the predicted ones by the model, forming domes around the values with peak points just in theoretical determinations or insinuating this fact. This representation will be indicative of any global pattern about Ho behaviour, increasing accuracy by becoming larger the data accumulation despite the existence of inaccuracies according to experimental measurements, and so constitutes an opened procedure by prolongation in time. In fact, the existence of the anticipated pattern by the model is peeked on graph in which Ho insinuates multiple possible quantized values separated 4,1 Km·s-1/Mpc (see table), which coincides closely with the Self Inductive Model predicted value 4,17 Km·s-1/Mpc!!. Note: - Due to its configuration, the peak number 4 has been considered like a unique unit. This shape must be revised in subsequent updates. -
3.2. EXPERIMENTAL DATA COMPILATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT. Estimates of the Hubble constant along time. (Periodically updated) Experimental data source: Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics. John Huchra. http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~huchra/ ; http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~huchra/hubble.plot.dat
All material included in this web can be used under source citation. Thanks for your reading!
ABSTRACTS
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3. SELF INDUCTIVE MODEL. THEORETICAL CALCULATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT AND RELATION WITH CMB AND CIB. The   cosmological   displacement   of   spectral   lines   observed   between   different   noticeable   cosmic   objects   and   Earth   depends   initially   on   the   relative   speeds between   them.   The   present   model   sets   out   to   evaluate   the   value   of   the   Hubble   constant   H o    by   taking   account   of   the   behaviour   of   variable   electric   and magnetic    fields,    which    shapes    electromagnetic    transmission    to    produce    a    spectral    red-shift.    The    model    deduces    the    new    attribute     vacuum    self- inductance ”   with   the   form   L o = Ω o t p /2 π .   Likewise,   the   application   of   the   model   to   a   sampling   of   galaxy   and   quasars   leads   to   a   surprising   relationship between the CMB, CIB and the cosmological red-shift, as well as to the discrepancy in the conventional distance to quasars. o=√(μoo) vacuum impedance ; tp= Planck time). ∙ Galilean Electrodynamics. Vol.19, N.5, pag.83-87, Sept.-Oct.2008. Paper3 page (PDF) 3.1. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS COMPARISON. (Periodically updated) Experimental source: Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics. John Huchra [1] . Estimates of the Hubble´s constant. Theoretical data source: Self inductive model.
1. A STUDY OF ENERGY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS. SPACE TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF ENERGY. “ Time is considered like a flow, as a growing magnitude that advances inexorably carrying every possible event, disappearing its trace and assuring its continuity through the predictable future. But past and future are not more than unreal forms, so are they undisputed proofs of the time existence? Can be past and future like energetic instant states inside a characteristic process of energetic variation that we observe as time passage? ”. The development of the initial equations shows the magnitude “space” like a mathematical way that possesses all the necessary characteristics for the development and formation of any observable real process. The emptiness, defined mathematically through the magnitude space characterized by the equation “s=(Gεμ)∙m”, allows itself the existence of processes with energetic transmission as the electromagnetic radiation, the formation of matter defined by some properties as mass and electrical charge across the spatial curvature, and assures the constancy of light velocity with independence from the velocity of the reference system. The evolution of the initial hypotheses bears to the known consequences in development of the special relativity theory and relates general relativity with the elemental particles across the spatial curvature and its relation with a constant force value F=c4/G and Planck space, time, mass and energy values, all implied in the inertial feature so called mass and also in the electrical charge property. The constant relation E/m=c2 is associated to volume through the above mentioned constant force and tension, and the values already defined by Planck appear interpreted as a "coupling" between "s=x" and Compton's wave length “λ” according to the deduced equation  λx=Gh/c3. “…The photon would remain trapped by the central punctual mass, only to distance whose value will be the associated space to mass: r=x=mG/c2,  which is  independent of the according to Compton formula photon mass.” “…we might consider their spatial magnitudes by equivalence and so a spatial curvature with these characteristics would behave like a photon trapped to distance “r=x” from the center of a sphere with that radio, in which every points which conform it to the same distance show a tension T`=c4/G. And mass attribute appears naturally.” “…mass appears from the coupling mass value (coincident with Planck mass) modulated by the interaction between two forces.” “…proper time appears as a function of temperature and entropy variation, and second one, in natural processes transmitted at light velocity, proper time does not exist. “…But we need to employ time to predict natural processes we observe, considering it consequently an undisputed probe about the existence of time. In this way we frame a useful entelechy that only exits from the related to the observer system point of view to study other inertial or non inertial external systems, where time does not exist or it is only an equivalence with energy exchange.” Even on inertial physical systems with non entropy variations and constant velocity, equivalent to resting systems, or on non inertial systems where acceleration exists, with equivalences on gravity or weightlessness depending on direction of the acceleration, time does not exist, although an external observer can to use the concept of time to define that frames. And in turn, one observer placed on a system for which proper time does not exist, could use time to define each other observed external system. It is only on frames where an entropy variation occurs, where we can devise the proper time concept, but considering distinct signs depending on signs of the entropic variation.” “…Life is a feedback reaction that permits to bear its increasing of entropy which tends to destroy the transmission of information over time, first by using energy to control that entropy variation, and as a certain degradation limit, by using energy to be opportunely renewed into another related system achieving the survival of the information. Information fights unconsciously to be transmitted and not be destroyed by probability.  - INDEX - 1.- VALIDITY OF DIFFERENTIALS EQUATIONS FOR ENERGY AND MASS FUNCTIONS. In the study of the hypotheses two integration constants appear: Cm y Ce, and the equations are studied with the inclusion of constant and its consequences. 2.- HIGH MASSES CONSIDERATION. Development of the theory with the consideration of zero values for integration constants, or situations in which this approximation is useful. 3.- GENERALIZATION OF FORCE IN ITS RELATION WITH ENERGY, MASS AND ASSOCIATED ESPACE “x”. Generalization of the force involved in the relation energy, mass, space for any speed value. 4.- STUDY OF THE VELOCITY-TIME FUNCTION. 5.- TERMODINAMIC STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATED TO ENERGY-MASS PROPER TIME. Application of the hypotheses. Implications time, energy variation and entropy variation. 5.1.-Generalization in complex systems. Study of the physical meaning of the implications in a macroscopic level. 6.-COUPLING. Particular conditions of surroundings. 7.- STUDY OF ENERGETIC VALUE AND IMPULSE IMPLICATED IN “m,x” RELATION REFERING TO COUPLING. Application of the F=c4/G value in the previous conditions of surroundings. Value of the unification of forces and energy. 8.-PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE ASSOCIATED SPACE. Study of the physical meaning of the space implied in the inertial character of mass from the study of the following concepts: 8.1.- Study of the pressure in a isotropic medium defined by its equivalence space- mass. 8.2.-Tension of a string with linear density µ=m/L, on which a wave with speed c is transmitted. 8.3.- Equivalence work-energy-mass. 8.4.- Application to an inertial system with spherical curvature. 9.-PHYSICAL MEANING OF CHARGE AND MASS MAGNITUDES. Magnitudes charge and mass appear from their coupling values (coincident with Planck mass and an unified charge) modulated by the interaction between two forces. 9.1.- THEORETICAL SUPPORT. 9.2.- QUANTIZATION OF MAGNITUDES. Paper1 page (PDF)
2. QUANTUM STABILITY OF THE MUON, TAU, ELECTRON LEPTONS IN RELATION TO PLANCK MAGNITUDES AND VACUUM. QUANTIZATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE AND MASS. From the study of the vacuum capacity as a sufficient medium in its relation with the Planck magnitudes in the formation and development of observable and real processes such as electrical charge and rest mass, the close existing relationships among tau, muon and electron leptonic particles are detailed as well as the definition for tau and muon as symmetrical components of an orderly body defined by spatial relations which only permits the formation of some structures by an only and reproducible way. The values obtained from the developed theoretical equations for muon and tau leptons rest mass equivalent are: m(µ)·c2=105,65763 62(83) Mev ; m(τ)·c2=1778,578 255(140) Mev. Taking the reference of experimental muon rest mass value due to accuracy in mass measurement, the relative error is er(µ)=0,0000068. - INDEX - 1.– Quantization of electrical charge. 1.1.– Quantization of electrical charge. Supplementary conditions. 2.– Theoretical support and relation with electron mass. 3.– Tau-muon relationships. Rest mass values calculation and conclusions. Paper2 page (PDF)
3. SELF INDUCTIVE MODEL. THEORETICAL CALCULATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT AND RELATION WITH CMB AND CIB. The   cosmological   displacement   of   spectral   lines   observed   between   different noticeable   cosmic   objects   and   Earth   depends   initially   on   the   relative   speeds between   them.   The   present   model   sets   out   to   evaluate   the   value   of   the   Hubble constant    H o     by    taking    account    of    the    behaviour    of    variable    electric    and magnetic    fields,    which    shapes    electromagnetic    transmission    to    produce    a spectral    red-shift.    The    model    deduces    the    new    attribute     vacuum    self- inductance ”   with   the   form   L o = Ω o t p /2 π .   Likewise,   the   application   of   the model   to   a   sampling   of   galaxy   and   quasars   leads   to   a   surprising   relationship between   the   CMB,   CIB   and   the   cosmological   red-shift,   as   well   as   to   the discrepancy in the conventional distance to quasars. (Ωo=√(μoo) vacuum impedance ; tp= Planck time). ∙ Galilean Electrodynamics. Vol.19, N.5, pag.83-87, Sept.-Oct.2008. Paper3 page (PDF) 3.1. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS COMPARISON. (Periodically updated) Experimental source: Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics. John Huchra [1]. Estimates of the Hubble´s constant. Theoretical data source: Self inductive model.
The number of samples obtained for Ho values experimentally measured between year 1996 and the last update of the source [1], are represented on the axis of ordinates. Experimental values of the Hubble constant, in spite of experimental errors, agglutinate around the predicted ones by the model, forming domes around the values with peak points just in theoretical determinations or insinuating this fact. This representation will be indicative of any global pattern about Ho behaviour, increasing accuracy by becoming larger the data accumulation despite the existence of inaccuracies according to experimental measurements, and so constitutes an opened procedure by prolongation in time. In fact, the existence of the anticipated pattern by the model is peeked on graph in which Ho insinuates multiple possible quantized values separated 4,1 Km·s-1/Mpc (see table), which coincides closely with the Self Inductive Model predicted value 4,17 Km·s- 1/Mpc!!. Note: - Due to its configuration, the peak number 4 has been considered like a unique unit. This shape must be revised in subsequent updates. -
3.2. EXPERIMENTAL DATA COMPILATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT. Estimates of the Hubble constant along time. (Periodically updated) Experimental data source: Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics. John Huchra. http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~huchra/ ; http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~huchra/hubble.plot.dat
ABSTRACTS
PDF
PDF
PDF
Welcome   Gonzalo Antonio Moreno Jiménez   Physics papers. The secret of Universe is inside the electron.
All material included in this web can be used under source citation. Thanks for your reading!
1. A STUDY OF ENERGY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS. SPACE TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF ENERGY. “   Time   is   considered   like   a   flow,   as   a   growing   magnitude   that   advances   inexorably   carrying   every   possible   event,   disappearing   its   trace   and assuring   its   continuity   through   the   predictable   future.   But   past   and   future   are   not   more   than   unreal   forms,   so   are   they   undisputed   proofs   of   the   time existence?   Can   be   past   and   future   like   energetic   instant   states   inside   a   characteristic   process   of   energetic   variation   that   we   observe   as   time   passage ? ”. The   development   of   the   initial   equations   shows   the   magnitude   “space”   like   a   mathematical   way   that   possesses   all   the   necessary   characteristics for    the    development    and    formation    of    any    observable    real    process.    The    emptiness,    defined    mathematically    through    the    magnitude    space characterized   by   the   equation   s=(Gεμ)∙m ”,   allows   itself   the   existence   of   processes   with   energetic   transmission   as   the   electromagnetic   radiation, the   formation   of   matter   defined   by   some   properties   as   mass   and   electrical   charge   across   the   spatial   curvature,   and   assures   the   constancy   of   light velocity with independence of reference system velocity.  The   evolution   of   the   initial   hypotheses   bears   to   the   known   consequences   in   development   of   the   special   relativity   theory   and   relates   general relativity   with   the   elemental   particles   across   the   spatial   curvature   and   its   relation   with   a   constant   force   value   F=c 4 /G    and   Planck   space,   time,   mass and   energy   values,   all   implied   in   the   inertial   feature   so   called   mass   and   also   in   the   electrical   charge   property.   The   constant   relation   E/m =c 2    is associated   to   volume   through   the   above   mentioned   constant   force   and   tension,   and   the   values   already   defined   by   Planck   appear   interpreted   as   a "coupling" between " s=x " and Compton's wave length “ λ ” according to the deduced equation  λx=Gh/c 3 . “…The   photon   would   remain   trapped   by   the   central   punctual   mass,   only   to   distance   whose   value   will   be   the   associated   space   to   mass: r=x=mG/c 2 ,  which is  independent of the according to Compton formula photon mass.” “…we   might   consider   their   spatial   magnitudes   by   equivalence   and   so   a   spatial   curvature   with   these   characteristics   would   behave   like   a   photon trapped   to   distance   “r=x”   from   the   center   of   a   sphere   with   that   radio,   in   which   every   points   which   conform   it   to   the   same   distance   show   a   tension T`=c 4 /G. And mass attribute appears naturally.” “…mass appears from the coupling mass value (coincident with Planck mass) modulated by the interaction between two forces.” “… proper   time   appears   as   a   function   of   temperature   and   entropy   variation ,   and   second   one,   in   natural   processes   transmitted   at   light   velocity, proper time does not exist. “…But   we   need   to   employ   time   to   predict   natural   processes   we   observe,   considering   it   consequently   an   undisputed   probe   about   the   existence   of time.   In   this   way   we   frame   a   useful   entelechy   that   only   exits   from   the   related   to   the   observer   system   point   of   view   to   study   other   inertial   or   non inertial external systems, where time does not exist or it is only an equivalence with energy exchange.” Even   on   inertial   physical   systems   with   non   entropy   variations   and   constant   velocity,   equivalent   to   resting   systems,   or   on   non   inertial   systems   where acceleration   exists,   with   equivalences   on   gravity   or   weightlessness   depending   on   direction   of   the   acceleration,   time   does   not   exist,   although   an external   observer   can   to   use   the   concept   of   time   to   define   that   frames. And   in   turn,   one   observer   placed   on   a   system   for   which   proper   time   does   not exist, could use time to define each other observed external system . It   is   only   on   frames   where   an   entropy   variation   occurs,   where   we   can   devise   the   proper   time   concept,   but   considering   distinct   signs   depending   on signs of the entropic variation.” “…Life   is   a   feedback   reaction   that   permits   to   bear   its   increasing   of   entropy   which   tends   to   destroy   the   transmission   of   information   over   time,   first by   using   energy   to   control   that   entropy   variation,   and   as   a   certain   degradation   limit,   by   using   energy   to   be   opportunely   renewed   into   another related    system    achieving    the    survival    of    the    information.    Information    fights    unconsciously    to    be    transmitted    and    not    be    destroyed    by probability.   - INDEX - 1.- VALIDITY OF DIFFERENTIALS EQUATIONS FOR ENERGY AND MASS FUNCTIONS. In the study of the hypotheses two integration constants appear: Cm y Ce, and the equations are studied with the inclusion of constant and its consequences. 2.- HIGH MASSES CONSIDERATION. Development of the theory with the consideration of zero values for integration constants, or situations in which this approximation is useful. 3.- GENERALIZATION OF FORCE IN ITS RELATION WITH ENERGY, MASS AND ASSOCIATED ESPACE “x”. Generalization of the force involved in the relation energy, mass, space for any speed value. 4.- STUDY OF THE VELOCITY-TIME FUNCTION. 5.- TERMODINAMIC STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATED TO ENERGY-MASS PROPER TIME. Application of the hypotheses. Implications time, energy variation and entropy variation. 5.1.-Generalization in complex systems. Study of the physical meaning of the implications in a macroscopic level. 6.-COUPLING. Particular conditions of surroundings. 7.- STUDY OF ENERGETIC VALUE AND IMPULSE IMPLICATED IN “m,x” RELATION REFERING TO COUPLING. Application of the F=c4/G value in the previous conditions of surroundings. Value of the unification of forces and energy. 8.-PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE ASSOCIATED SPACE. Study of the physical meaning of the space implied in the inertial character of mass from the study of the following concepts: 8.1.- Study of the pressure in a isotropic medium defined by its equivalence space-mass. 8.2.-Tension of a string with linear density µ=m/L, on which a wave with speed c is transmitted. 8.3.- Equivalence work-energy-mass. 8.4.- Application to an inertial system with spherical curvature. 9.-PHYSICAL MEANING OF CHARGE AND MASS MAGNITUDES. Magnitudes charge and mass appear from their coupling values (coincident with Planck mass and an unified charge) modulated by the interaction between two forces. 9.1.- THEORETICAL SUPPORT. 9.2.- QUANTIZATION OF MAGNITUDES. Paper1 page (PDF)
2. QUANTUM STABILITY OF THE MUON, TAU, ELECTRON LEPTONS IN RELATION TO PLANCK MAGNITUDES AND VACUUM. QUANTIZATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE AND MASS. From the study of the vacuum capacity as a sufficient medium in its relation with the Planck magnitudes in the formation and development of observable and real processes such as electrical charge and rest mass, the close existing relationships among tau, muon and electron leptonic particles are detailed as well as the definition for tau and muon as symmetrical components of an orderly body defined by spatial relations which only permits the formation of some structures by an only and reproducible way. The values obtained from the developed theoretical equations for muon and tau leptons rest mass equivalent are: m(µ)·c2=105,65763 62(83) Mev ; m(τ)·c2=1778,578 255(140) Mev. Taking the reference of experimental muon rest mass value due to accuracy in mass measurement, the relative error is er(µ)=0,0000068. - INDEX - 1.– Quantization of electrical charge. 1.1.– Quantization of electrical charge. Supplementary conditions. 2.– Theoretical support and relation with electron mass. 3.– Tau-muon relationships. Rest mass values calculation and conclusions. Paper2 page (PDF)
3. SELF INDUCTIVE MODEL. THEORETICAL CALCULATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT AND RELATION WITH CMB AND CIB. The   cosmological   displacement   of   spectral   lines   observed   between   different   noticeable   cosmic   objects   and   Earth   depends   initially   on   the   relative speeds   between   them.   The   present   model   sets   out   to   evaluate   the   value   of   the   Hubble   constant   H o    by   taking   account   of   the   behaviour   of   variable electric   and   magnetic   fields,   which   shapes   electromagnetic   transmission   to   produce   a   spectral   red-shift.   The   model   deduces   the   new   attribute   vacuum   self-inductance ”   with   the   form   L o = Ω o t p /2 π .   Likewise,   the   application   of   the   model   to   a   sampling   of   galaxy   and   quasars   leads   to   a surprising   relationship   between   the   CMB,   CIB   and   the   cosmological   red-shift,   as   well   as   to   the   discrepancy   in   the   conventional   distance   to quasars. (Ωo=√(μoo) vacuum impedance ; tp= Planck time). ∙ Galilean Electrodynamics. Vol.19, N.5, pag.83-87, Sept.-Oct.2008. Paper3 page (PDF) 3.1. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS COMPARISON. (Periodically updated) Experimental source: Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics. John Huchra [1]. Estimates of the Hubble´s constant. Theoretical data source: Self inductive model.
The number of samples obtained for Ho values experimentally measured between year 1996 and the last update of the source [1], are represented on the axis of ordinates. Experimental values of the Hubble constant, in spite of experimental errors, agglutinate around the predicted ones by the model, forming domes around the values with peak points just in theoretical determinations or insinuating this fact. This representation will be indicative of any global pattern about Ho behaviour, increasing accuracy by becoming larger the data accumulation despite the existence of inaccuracies according to experimental measurements, and so constitutes an opened procedure by prolongation in time. In fact, the existence of the anticipated pattern by the model is peeked on graph in which Ho insinuates multiple possible quantized values separated 4,1 Km·s- 1/Mpc (see table), which coincides closely with the Self Inductive Model predicted value 4,17 Km·s-1/Mpc!!. Note: - Due to its configuration, the peak number 4 has been considered like a unique unit. This shape must be revised in subsequent updates. -
3.2. EXPERIMENTAL DATA COMPILATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT. Estimates of the Hubble constant along time. (Periodically updated) Experimental data source: Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics. John Huchra. http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~huchra/ ; http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~huchra/hubble.plot.dat
ABSTRACTS
PDF
PDF
PDF
All material included in this web can be used under source citation. Thanks for your reading!
Welcome  Gonzalo Antonio Moreno Jiménez.  Physics papers. The secret of Universe is inside the electron.
Wellcome Gonzalo Antonio Moreno Jiménez. Physics papers. The secret of Universe is inside the electron.
1. A STUDY OF ENERGY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS. SPACE TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF ENERGY. Time   is   considered   like   a   flow,   as   a   growing   magnitude   that   advances   inexorably   carrying   every   possible   event,   disappearing   its   trace   and   assuring   its   continuity   through   the   predictable   future.   But   past and   future   are   not   more   than   unreal   forms,   so   are   they   undisputed   proofs   of   the   time   existence?   Can   be   past   and   future   like   energetic   instant   states   inside   a   characteristic   process   of   energetic   variation   that we observe as time passage ? ”. The   development   of   the   initial   equations   shows   the   magnitude   “space”   like   a   mathematical   way   that   possesses   all   the   necessary   characteristics   for   the   development   and   formation   of   any   observable   real process.   The   emptiness,   defined   mathematically   through   the   magnitude   space   characterized   by   the   equation   s=(Gεμ)∙m ”,   allows   itself   the   existence   of   processes   with   energetic   transmission   as   the electromagnetic   radiation,   the   formation   of   matter   defined   by   some   properties   as   mass   and   electrical   charge   across   the   spatial   curvature,   and   assures   the   constancy   of   light   velocity   with   independence   from the velocity of the reference system. The   evolution   of   the   initial   hypotheses   bears   to   the   known   consequences   in   development   of   the   special   relativity   theory   and   relates   general   relativity   with   the   elemental   particles   across   the   spatial curvature   and   its   relation   with   a   constant   force   value   F=c 4 /G    and   Planck   space,   time,   mass   and   energy   values,   all   implied   in   the   inertial   feature   so   called   mass   and   also   in   the   electrical   charge   property. The relation   E/m = c 2    is   associated   to   volume   through   the   above   mentioned   constant   force   and   tension,   and   the   values   already   defined   by   Planck   appear   interpreted   as   a   "coupling"   between   " s=x "   and   Compton's wave length “ λ ” according to the deduced equation  λx=Gh/c 3 . “…The   photon   would   remain   trapped   by   the   central   punctual   mass,   only   to   distance   whose   value   will   be   the   associated   space   to   mass:   r=x=mG/c 2 ,    which   is      independent   of   the   according   to   Compton formula photon mass.” “…we   might   consider   their   spatial   magnitudes   by   equivalence   and   so   a   spatial   curvature   with   these   characteristics   would   behave   like   a   photon   trapped   to   distance   “r=x”   from   the   center   of   a   sphere with that radio, in which every points which conform it to the same distance show a tension T`=c 4 /G. And mass attribute appears naturally.” “…mass appears from the coupling mass value (coincident with Planck mass) modulated by the interaction between two forces.” “… proper time appears as a function of temperature and entropy variation , and second one, in natural processes transmitted at light velocity, proper time does not exist.   “…But   we   need   to   employ   time   to   predict   natural   processes   we   observe,   considering   it   consequently   an   undisputed   probe   about   the   existence   of   time.   In   this   way   we   frame   a   useful   entelechy   that   only exits from the related to the observer system point of view to study other inertial or non inertial external systems, where time does not exist or it is only an equivalence with energy exchange.” Even   on   inertial   physical   systems   with   non   entropy   variations   and   constant   velocity,   equivalent   to   resting   systems,   or   on   non   inertial   systems   where   acceleration   exists,   with   equivalences   on   gravity   or weightlessness   depending   on   direction   of   the   acceleration,   time   does   not   exist,   although   an   external   observer   can   to   use   the   concept   of   time   to   define   that   frames.   And   in   turn,   one   observer   placed   on   a system for which proper time does not exist, could use time to define each other observed external system . It is only on frames where an entropy variation occurs, where we can devise the proper time concept, but considering distinct signs depending on signs of the entropic variation.” “…Life   is   a   feedback   reaction   that   permits   to   bear   its   increasing   of   entropy   which   tends   to   destroy   the   transmission   of   information   over   time,   first   by   using   energy   to   control   that   entropy   variation,   and   as a   certain   degradation   limit,   by   using   energy   to   be   opportunely   renewed   into   another   related   system   achieving   the   survival   of   the   information.   Information   fights   unconsciously   to   be   transmitted   and   not be destroyed by probability.   - INDEX - 1.- VALIDITY OF DIFFERENTIALS EQUATIONS FOR ENERGY AND MASS FUNCTIONS. In the study of the hypotheses two integration constants appear: Cm y Ce, and the equations are studied with the inclusion of constant and its consequences. 2.- HIGH MASSES CONSIDERATION. Development of the theory with the consideration of zero values for integration constants, or situations in which this approximation is useful. 3.- GENERALIZATION OF FORCE IN ITS RELATION WITH ENERGY, MASS AND ASSOCIATED ESPACE “x”. Generalization of the force involved in the relation energy, mass, space for any speed value. 4.- STUDY OF THE VELOCITY-TIME FUNCTION. 5.- TERMODINAMIC STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATED TO ENERGY-MASS PROPER TIME. Application of the hypotheses. Implications time, energy variation and entropy variation. 5.1.-Generalization in complex systems. Study of the physical meaning of the implications in a macroscopic level. 6.-COUPLING. Particular conditions of surroundings. 7.- STUDY OF ENERGETIC VALUE AND IMPULSE IMPLICATED IN “m,x” RELATION REFERING TO COUPLING. Application of the F=c4/G value in the previous conditions of surroundings. Value of the unification of forces and energy. 8.-PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE ASSOCIATED SPACE. Study of the physical meaning of the space implied in the inertial character of mass from the study of the following concepts: 8.1.- Study of the pressure in a isotropic medium defined by its equivalence space-mass. 8.2.-Tension of a string with linear density µ=m/L, on which a wave with speed c is transmitted. 8.3.- Equivalence work-energy-mass. 8.4.- Application to an inertial system with spherical curvature. 9.-PHYSICAL MEANING OF CHARGE AND MASS MAGNITUDES. Magnitudes charge and mass appear from their coupling values (coincident with Planck mass and an unified charge) modulated by the interaction between two forces. 9.1.- THEORETICAL SUPPORT. 9.2.- QUANTIZATION OF MAGNITUDES. Paper1 page (PDF)
ABSTRACTS
2. QUANTUM STABILITY OF THE MUON, TAU, ELECTRON LEPTONS IN RELATION TO PLANCK MAGNITUDES AND VACUUM. QUANTIZATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE AND MASS. From the study of the spatial magnitude capacity as a sufficient medium in its relation with the Planck magnitudes in the formation and development of observable and real processes such as electrical charge and rest mass, the close existing relationships among tau, muon and electron leptonic particles are detailed as well as the definition for tau and muon as symmetrical components of an orderly mathematical framework defined by spatial relationships, which only permits the formation of some structures by an only and reproducible way. The values obtained from the developed theoretical equations for muon and tau leptons rest mass equivalent are: m(µ)·c2=105,65763 62(83) Mev ; m(τ)·c2=1778,578 255(140) Mev. Taking the reference of experimental muon rest mass value due to accuracy in mass measurement, the relative error is er(µ)=0,0000068. - INDEX - 1.– Quantization of electrical charge. 1.1.– Quantization of electrical charge. Supplementary conditions. 2.– Theoretical support and relation with electron mass. 3.– Tau-muon relationships. Rest mass values calculation and conclusions. Paper2 page (PDF)
3. SELF INDUCTIVE MODEL. THEORETICAL CALCULATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT AND RELATION WITH CMB AND CIB. The   cosmological   displacement   of   spectral   lines   observed   between   different   noticeable   cosmic   objects   and   Earth   depends   initially   on   the   relative   speeds   between   them.   The   present   model   sets   out   to evaluate   the   value   of   the   Hubble   constant   H o    by   taking   account   of   the   behaviour   of   variable   electric   and   magnetic   fields,   which   shapes   electromagnetic   transmission   to   produce   a   spectral   red-shift. The   model   deduces   the   new   attribute    vacuum   self-inductance ”   with   the   form   L o = Ω o t p /2 π .   Likewise,   the   application   of   the   model   to   a   sampling   of   galaxy   and   quasars   leads   to   a   surprising relationship between the CMB, CIB and the cosmological red-shift, as well as to the discrepancy in the conventional distance to quasars. (Ωo=√(μoo) vacuum impedance ; tp= Planck time). ∙ Galilean Electrodynamics. Vol.19, N.5, pag.83-87, Sept.-Oct.2008. Paper3 page (PDF) 3.1. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS COMPARISON. (Periodically updated) Experimental source: Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics. John Huchra [1] . Estimates of the Hubble´s constant. Theoretical data source: Self inductive model.
The number of samples obtained for Ho values experimentally measured between year 1996 and the last update of the source [1], are represented on the axis of ordinates. Experimental values of the Hubble constant, in spite of experimental errors, agglutinate around the predicted ones by the model, forming domes around the values with peak points just in theoretical determinations or insinuating this fact. This representation will be indicative of any global pattern about Ho behaviour, increasing accuracy by becoming larger the data accumulation despite the existence of inaccuracies according to experimental measurements, and so constitutes an opened procedure by prolongation in time. In fact, the existence of the anticipated pattern by the model is peeked on graph in which Ho insinuates multiple possible quantized values separated 4,1 Km·s-1/Mpc (see table), which coincides closely with the Self Inductive Model predicted value 4,17 Km·s-1/Mpc!!. Note: - Due to its configuration, the peak number 4 has been considered like a unique unit. This shape must be revised in subsequent updates. -
3.2. EXPERIMENTAL DATA COMPILATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT. Estimates of the Hubble constant along time. (Periodically updated) Experimental data source: Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics. John Huchra. http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~huchra/ ; http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~huchra/hubble.plot.dat
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All material included in this web can be used under source citation. Thanks for your reading!